- Omega-3 fatty acids, which significantly contribute to heart and brain health, remain largely under-consumed in the U.S. commonplace diets. The primary sources of Omega-3s are EPA, DHA, and ALA, with EPA and DHA primarily consumed through fish or supplements while ALA is found in certain nuts and plant oils.
- Despite the lack of specific dietary guidelines on EPA and DHA intake from U.S. health agencies, it is advised to consume approximately 1.6 grams (for men) or 1.1 grams (for women) of daily ALA, with higher amounts recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding individuals.
- Fish oil supplements present a viable alternative to naturally sourced Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly for those with low fish intake, though it is advised to consult a healthcare professional before starting a reigime. While supplements might not significantly lower triglycerides, they are still deemed beneficial for immune function, wellness, and aging.
- Beyond heart and brain health, recent findings also suggest the potential benefits of Omega-3 supplements for overweight or obese individuals, emphasizing that any amount could provide benefits, even if it does not significantly lower triglycerides.
Omega-3 fatty acids, vital for maintaining heart and brain health, have been associated with numerous health benefits including boosting the immune system, reducing inflammation, and lowering both blood pressure and triglyceride levels. These factors contribute to minimizing the risk of heart disease and cognitive decline.
However, it is noted that a significant proportion of individuals in the United States do not consume enough of these essential nutrients in their diet.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids: An Overview
“The intake of omega-3s in the U.S. is alarmingly low,” highlighted Ann Skulas-Ray, a faculty member in the School of Nutritional Sciences and Wellness at an esteemed university in Tucson, Arizona.
The spectrum of omega-3 fatty acids primarily includes alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The human body is capable of converting a small portion of ALA into EPA and DHA. Nonetheless, the primary means of amplifying these levels is through the consumption of omega-3 rich foods and supplements. Despite this, survey data reveals that adults in the U.S. typically fall short in the adequate consumption of EPA and DHA, with an average intake of around 0.1 gram per day.
No Clear Dietary Guidelines Available
Currently, there are no specific guidelines by U.S. health agencies on the amount of EPA and DHA one should incorporate into their daily diet. There are, however, recommendations for daily ALA intake based on age and gender. The National Academy of Medicine suggests men consume 1.6 grams and women 1.1 grams of ALA daily. Pregnant or breastfeeding individuals need slightly more.
Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
ALA can be found in certain nuts like walnuts and some plant oils, including flaxseed, soybean, and canola. On the other hand, EPA and DHA are prominently found in oysters and fatty fish like salmon, sardines, mackerel, herring, lake trout, and albacore tuna. The advice is to consume two servings of fish, particularly fatty fish, per week, equating to around 6 ounces when cooked, to help reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Supplements as an Alternative
Although the ideal source of nutrients is food, dietary supplements, such as fish oil, can be another means of consuming these healthy fats, especially for individuals who aren’t keen on fish. Supplementing with omega-3 fish oil capsules may slightly decrease the risk of mortality post-heart failure or a recent heart attack, but they do not hinder heart disease.
A separate advisory was issued suggesting that 4 grams per day of prescription fish oil supplements could be a safe and effective way to lower triglycerides in individuals with elevated levels. However, the advisory warned against the consumption of unregulated supplements.
Furthermore, a 2022 analysis published in a renowned journal found that consuming 3 grams each day of EPA and DHA, via food or supplement, could be the ideal dose to aid in lowering blood pressure.
New Findings on Omega-3 Fatty Acids
A recent analysis found that a daily intake of more than 2 grams of DHA and EPA combined in supplement form could decrease triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol levels, but not LDL cholesterol. “People with high levels of LDL cholesterol should seek alternative medications, such as statins, to reduce the blood level of LDL cholesterol,” stated Dr. Xinzhi Li, a pharmacy professor at a notable university in China.
Omega-3 supplements may particularly benefit individuals who are overweight or suffer from obesity. As U.S. adults typically don’t reach the recommended daily amount of omega-3 fatty acids, “any amount of supplement has the potential to help, even if it doesn’t lower triglycerides,” Skulas-Ray mentioned. She emphasized that dietary supplements are a viable option for those who don’t consume oily fish but suggested that it’s best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting a new supplement regimen.
Although low doses of supplements might not significantly lower triglycerides, Skulas-Ray affirmed that they are still worth taking as they can help support optimal immune function, wellness, and aging, which is the ultimate goal.
This article covers heart and brain health. Not all perspectives conveyed in this piece reflect the official position of the writer. All rights are reserved.
By a skilled writer