- Research links high consumption of ultra-processed foods to a 29% increased risk of developing colon cancer in males. Women don’t seem to face this increased risk despite the same consumption levels, suggesting potential gender-related impacts.
- Ultra-processed foods, which are high in sugars, fats and refined starch yet low in beneficial nutrients, contribute to weight gain and obesity – a notable risk factor for colorectal cancer. High-risk foods include processed meats, poultry or fish-based products, and sugar-sweetened beverages.
- The study analyzed the dietary habits of over 200,000 US men and women over more than 25 years, finding that men who consumed the most ultra-processed foods faced the greatest colon cancer risk.
- Chemicals used in processed meats such as nitrates, nitrites, and heterocyclic amines, which are produced when meat is cooked at high temperatures, are known carcinogens linked to colon cancer risk.
- Preventative measures include adhering to a plant-based diet, keeping a healthy weight, physical exercise, maintaining good sleep habits, and getting regular colonoscopies upon reaching age 45.
Research suggests a potential link between the frequent consumption of ultra-processed foods and an increased risk of developing colon cancer, particularly in men. Men who frequently consume ultra-processed products are reported to have a 29% higher risk of developing colon cancer compared to those who consume fewer of these products. Interestingly, this increased risk doesn’t seem to apply to women who consume larger quantities of these ultra-processed foods, which may suggest a potential gender-related impact.
What Makes Ultra-Processed Foods Risky?
Ultra-processed foods contain a high amount of added sugars, oils/fats, and refined starch, all of which significantly contribute to weight gain and obesity. Obesity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer. Besides, these ultra-processed foods have been found to be low in beneficial nutrients and bioactive compounds like minerals and vitamins.
The particular reason why men seem to be at a higher risk remains unexplained. One potential reason could be the specific composition of the ultra-processed foods consumed by men as compared to women. Further research is intended to explore if a true gender difference exists in this context.
The study examined over 200,000 U.S. men and women, all healthcare professionals, and recorded their dietary habits and frequency of consumption of about 130 foods over the course of more than 25 years. Men found to consume the most ultra-processed foods were at the greatest risk for developing colon cancer. These findings were largely driven by high consumption of ultra-processed meats, poultry or fish-based, ready-to-eat products, and sugar-sweetened beverages.
Contrary to the male participants, the study did not find an overall increased risk for women who consumed high amounts of ultra-processed foods. However, female participants who consumed more ready-to-eat/heat-mixed dishes exhibited a higher risk of colon cancer.
The researchers made sure to control for other factors like race, family history of cancer, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol intake that are known to increase colon cancer risk.
The findings of this study add to the growing research pool linking diets that are high in ultra-processed foods to cancer, specifically colon cancer. Some of the chemicals used in processed meats such as nitrates, nitrites, which keep meat fresh, and heterocyclic amines, which are produced when meat is cooked at a high temperature, are known carcinogens.
It is advised to consume a plant-based diet predominantly consisting of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, with the rest being lean meats, fish, poultry, and legumes. It’s equally important to limit the intake of red meat and processed meats.
Ultra-processed foods may contribute to gut inflammation and consequently increase the risk of colon cancer. Therefore, reducing the consumption of these foods and replacing them with fruits, vegetables, calcium, vitamin D, and high fiber foods is beneficial.
Physical exercise, maintaining a proper sleep pattern, and weight management are essential lifestyle practices. Both men and women are advised to schedule regular colonoscopies once they reach the age of 45.
The study has been carried out under the guidance of Lu Wang, a postdoctoral fellow at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, along with other distinguished medical professionals.