- The gut bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila could potentially influence how the body metabolises food and hence affect weight. Its presence is associated with a fiber-rich diet and is linked to reduced blood sugar, insulin, and lipid levels, potentially offering protection against obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
- The bacteria might become the focus of novel treatments in the field of metabolic diseases, however, the initial step would be to identify the molecules that the organism produces that contribute to the improvement.
- A study revealed that individuals who had significant amounts of A. muciniphila in their gut displayed lower blood sugar, insulin levels, narrower waistline and fewer fatty cells than those with less of the bacterium, especially when paired with a varied bacterial flora.
- The presence of A. muciniphila was also shown to benefit even after the participants went on a low-calorie, high protein and fibre diet for six weeks and indicated improvement in blood sugar, insulin levels and body fat distribution.
- Despite the potential benefits of A. muciniphila, maintaining a balanced community of beneficial microbes is considered critical. This balance can be nurtured via a predominantly plant-based diet, regular exercise and adequate sleep. Despite emerging research, it is stressed that no single beneficial bacterium can compensate for the harm done by an unhealthy lifestyle.
Could one microbe residing within the myriad of bacteria in your gut influence how your body metabolises food and thus sway your weight? Intriguing evidence from a minor French investigation seems to suggest so.
The bacterium in question, Akkermansia muciniphila, accounts for approximately three to five percent of gut bacteria. Its presence correlates with a fibre-laden eating plan and is linked to reduced blood sugar, insulin, and lipid levels, potentially offering protection against obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Notably, A. muciniphila is also implicated in healthier fat distribution throughout the body, according to the researchers.
Is this Microbe a Potential Solution?
“This type of bacteria might indeed become the focus of novel treatments in the sphere of metabolic diseases,” suggested the primary investigator, Dr. Karine Clement, who is heading up the Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition at the Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital located in Paris.
“Nevertheless, the initial step would be to identify the molecules that this organism produces, which contribute to this improvement,” she added.
Dr. Clement suggests that A. muciniphila might spawn a plethora of substances that could provide energy to other bacteria present within the human body. It raises the possibility that aside from its own beneficial effects, A. muciniphila could also foster the growth of other useful bacteria.
Details of the Study
The research, whose findings are accessible in the Gut journal online, involved evaluating the number of this microbe and other bacteria living in the guts of 49 volunteers, who were either overweight or obese. 41 of these individuals were female. The team additionally inspected factors like blood glucose, blood lipids, and elements affecting abdominal fat.
The researchers gauged these factors before and after the participants commenced a low-calorie diet rich in protein and fibre for a duration of six weeks. It has been noted that curtailing calories can alter the microbial diversity in the gut.
As the participants embarked on their diet, those who harboured significant quantities of A. muciniphila in their gut exhibited lowered blood glucose, insulin levels, a narrower waistline and fewer fatty cells underneath their skin compared to those possessing less of the bacterium.
The study also revealed that participants hosting substantial amounts of A. muciniphila together with a variety of other bacteria in their gut, displayed the lowest blood sugar and fat levels, and the healthiest fat distribution.
Post Diet Observations
After six weeks of restricting their caloric intake, individuals who initially harboured the highest levels of A. muciniphila showed the most improvement in their blood sugar, insulin levels, and body fat distribution compared to those hosting lower numbers of the bacteria.
A point to note is that the researchers measured bacterial levels via stool samples, hence it remains to be seen whether these quantities are identical in the gut and feces. It is also not yet clear if changes in the bacterial composition are long-lasting after the period of caloric restriction.
Why are Gut Bacteria Essential?
Samantha Heller, an experienced clinical nutritionist at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City stressed how vital gut bacteria are for overall wellness.
“Our gastrointestinal tract is home to around 1,000 bacteria species,” she stated. Roughly 1 trillion microbes have made themselves at home in our gut. They repay us by extracting nutrients from food, aiding digestion, maintaining gut wall integrity, fending off pathogens, and synthesizing compounds that can combat diseases, she described.
Indeed, ongoing research points towards these microbial communities playing such pivotal roles in human health and diseases that our very survival as a species might be contingent upon them, according to Heller.
Maintaining Microbial Balance
“Scientists are attempting to deconstruct the mystery of how different microbes exert their effects in the body, but what they do know is that a balanced community of beneficial microbes is critical,” she said.
For instance, following a predominantly plant-based diet, engaging in regular exercise, and adequate sleep have all been shown to nurture a thriving, diverse gut microbiota, said Heller.
With respect to weight management, research in this field is still in its formative stages, she said. However, excessive calorie intake, frequent consumption of highly processed foods, junk food, fast food, coupled with a sedentary lifestyle, are all well-established contributors to obesity. Heller cautions that the presence of a single beneficial microbe cannot undo the harm caused by an unhealthy lifestyle.
For Further Information
To learn more about obesity, visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.